Reducing energy dissipation while increasing speed in computation and memory is a long-standing challenge for spintronics research . In the last 20 years, femtosecond lasers have emerged as a tool to control the magnetization in specific magnetic materials at the picosecond timescale . However, the use of ultra-fast optics in integrated circuits and memories would require a major paradigm shift. An ultrafast electrical control of the magnetization  is far preferable for integrated systems. In a recent work , we demonstrate reliable and deterministic control of the out-of-plane magnetization of a 1 nm-thick Co layer with single 6 ps-wide electrical pulses that induce spin orbit torques on the magnetization. We can monitor the ultrafast magnetization dynamics due to the spin orbit torques with sub-picosecond resolution, thus far accessible only by numerical simulations. Due to the short duration of our pulses, we enter a counter-intuitive regime of switching where heat dissipation assists the reversal. Moreover, we estimate a low energy cost to switch the magnetization, below 50 pJ for our micrometer sized device. These experiments show that spintronic phenomena can be exploited on picosecond time-scales for full magnetic control and should launch a new regime of ultrafast spin torque studies and applications.
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